For discussion
on 9 July 1999


Government Secretariat: Trade and Industry Bureau
Subhead A008XV Electronic data interchange system
Subhead 001 Salaries
Subhead 001 Salaries
Subhead 001 Salaries

    Members are invited to approve -

  1. an increase in commitment from $194,832,000 by $110,070,000 to $304,902,000 under Subhead A008XV Electronic data interchange system for the implementation of the Electronic Data Interchange System for Cargo Manifests; and

  2. an increase in the ceilings placed on the total notional annual mid-point salary value in 1999-2000 of all non-directorate posts in the permanent establishment of the -

    1. Customs and Excise Department from $1,570,688,620 by $2,027,460 to $1,572,716,080;

    2. Census and Statistics Department from $488,900,040 by $2,064,000 to $490,964,040; and

    3. Trade Department from $223,641,000 by $800,700 to $224,441,700.


The current paper-based method of submission of cargo manifests is labour-intensive, time consuming and inefficient for both cargo carriers and the Government departments concerned. We need to have a community-wide network infrastructure to enable cargo carriers to submit the manifests electronically to the Customs and Excise Department (C&ED), Census and Statistics Department (C&SD) and Trade Department (Trade D).


2. The Secretary for Trade and Industry proposes to expand the existing Government electronic data interchange (EDI) system to cover the submission of cargo manifests to C&ED, C&SD and Trade D electronically in order to improve the efficiency of the trading community and the Government.


Electronic Data Interchange Services

3. EDI is the electronic transfer of data from one independent computer to another using agreed standards of data structure. Its application in trade transactions enables the processing of documents in an efficient and accurate manner. It has become a popular mode of electronic commerce worldwide. In order to preserve Hong Kong's competitiveness in the global business community, the Government has taken the lead to encourage the widespread use of EDI for trade-related transactions. In this connection, the Government has entered into an agreement with Tradelink Electronic Commerce Limited (Tradelink) for Tradelink to provide the Community Electronic Trading Service (CETS) for EDI processing of a range of government trade-related documents(1). The intention is to build up the critical mass required for the community to adopt electronic commerce. We introduced EDI submissions for Restrained Textiles Export Licences (RTEL) in January 1997, followed by that of Import and Export Declarations (TDEC) in April 1997. The EDI system for Certificates of Origin and Production Notification is under active development and will be put into service in the latter part of this year. At the meeting on 25 June 1999, Members approved the funding request for development of the EDI system for Dutiable Commodities Permits.

Cargo Manifest

4. Manifest is an important trade document for cargo clearance, compilation of trade statistics and import and export licensing control. Cargo carriers are required to send a copy of paper manifest to C&ED, C&SD and Trade D respectively to meet the statutory requirements imposed on them under the Import and Export Ordinance, Cap. 60. The information provided on each copy may vary depending on the requirements of the user departments. In addition, the timeframe for submission varies from department to department. On the Government's side, we have to deploy substantial staff resources to receive, sort, process, file and store these paper manifests. This paper-based arrangement is both costly and inefficient.

Proposed EDI System for Manifest (EMAN) System

5. As part of the CETS programme, we completed the feasibility study on EDI submission of cargo manifest (EMAN) in April 1999. The study established the feasibility of implementing an EDI system for the submission of manifests in respect of cargo transported by rail, ocean/river and air(2). Under the proposed EMAN system, a community-wide network infrastructure will be set up to receive manifests electronically from cargo carriers. Only one set of cargo manifest needs to be lodged with the Government electronically, thus obviating the current practice of delivering physically three sets of paper manifest at different times to C&SD, C&ED and Trade D. An interface with RTEL and TDEC systems will be built for the relevant Government departments or organizations to exchange data to facilitate data processing. We set out at Enclosure 1 details of the proposed system.

Anticipated Benefits

Meeting the need of the industry

6. Many economies including our main trading partners in the region have already switched to electronic means in receiving manifests from carriers. They include Singapore, Korea, Japan, Chinese Taipei, the Philippines and major cities in the Mainland of China. Most international cargo carriers have already automated their businesses to submit their manifests through electronic means. We have from time to time received representations from the industry(3) for extending EDI service to cover manifests.

Better trade facilitation

7. The proposed EMAN system will provide a communication infrastructure for carriers to submit manifests electronically. The carriers will gain substantial benefit with the replacement of the physical delivery of three sets of paper manifest by one simple electronic submission. Given the large volume of manifests lodged, the EMAN system will result in savings in operating cost and improved efficiency for traders and carriers. The preparation time of the manifest is reduced by two-thirds and the submission time from at least several hours to a few minutes.

Increased competitiveness

8. The system will bring substantial economic benefit to the trading community by reducing the total costs of procedures and paperwork for our traders. It has been estimated that the costs of procedures and paperwork of traders are between 3% and 5% of the value of the goods imported and exported. In 1998, the total value of goods imported and exported was $2,776,741 million. By taking the lower end of the cost of procedure and paperwork, i.e. 3%, the total cost borne by the traders could amount to $83,302 million. Assuming the use of EDI could reduce 10% of the cost of procedure and paperwork, the cost saved for the community would be $8,330 million. This would contribute to increased competitiveness of our economy.

Better control and improved Government efficiency

9. The implementation of EMAN will streamline the existing procedures for manifest submission. By establishing a "one stop" collection centre for receiving manifests, it will eliminate the duplication of work now inherent in the manual processing system. The proposed system will facilitate a number of tasks as follows -

  • monitoring the timely submission of manifests

  • sorting and filing of manifests

  • sharing of manifest information

  • compiling cargo statistics.

10. The information contained in manifests is used for many cross-checking and control purposes. For example, by comparing the information set out in a manifest and the dutiable commodities permits issued, C&ED is able to ascertain if all the dutiable goods imported or exported have been properly covered by permits. Statistics from manifests are checked against those in import and export declarations for the compilation of trade statistics. For those items to which import and export controls apply, the information in the manifest is an additional tool for verifying compliance with the relevant legislative controls. In addition, manifest information is used to track possible smuggling cases. The introduction of EMAN will enhance all these functions.

11. The central database of the EMAN system will enable much quicker documentation processing time. For instance, we estimate that the lead time for cross-checking with trade declarations for ocean and river cargo will be reduced from 75 to 16 days, while that for dutiable commodities permits from three to four months now to 16 days in future. The database will also enable considerably improved analysis and profiling of smuggling cases.

Cost and Benefit Analysis

12. With the implementation of the EMAN system, we estimate that there will be staff savings through the streamlining of work and elimination of certain manual processes. The deletion of posts will also result in notional savings in the cost of accommodation. The EMAN system will result in annual savings of $15.62 million within the Government, of which $10.14 million is realizable savings from a deletion of 36 posts, and $5.48 million is notional savings. A detailed breakdown of the savings is at Enclosure 2.

13. A detailed cost and benefit analysis of the proposed EMAN system is at Enclosure 3. Although there is no break-even point for this system, largely due to the high facility management cost as explained in paragraphs 18 and 29 below, the proposed project is justified because of the substantial economic benefit to be generated.


Non-recurrent Expenditure

14. Based on the feasibility study results, we estimate that the proposed system will require non-recurrent expenditure of $125,982,000 over three years from 1999-2000 to 2001-2002. The expenditure breakdown is as follows -

Non-recurrent expenditure

(a)Computer hardware and software - 60,648 - 60,648
(b)Implementation service - 16,431 13,822 30,253
(c)Site preparation - 588 - 588
(d)Facility management - 1,543 438 1,981
(e)Communication service - 4,352 1,361 5,713
(f)Training - 185 - 185
(g)Start-up consumables - 1,612 - 1,612
(h)Contingency - 7,708 1,382 9,090

_______ _______ _______ _______
Sub-total - 93,067 17,003 110,070

_______ _______ _______ _______
Staff costs

(i)C&ED 655 3,930 819 5,404
(j)C&SD 528 3,938 1,010 5,476
(k)Trade D 182 1,093 228 1,503
(l)Information Technology Services Department (ITSD) 1,529 1,529 471 3,529

_______ _______ _______ _______
Sub-total 2,894 10,490 2,528 15,912

_______ _______ _______ _______
Total 2,894 103,557 19,531 125,982

_______ _______ _______ _______

This item seeks Members' approval of the non-recurrent commitment of $110,070,000 for items (a) to (h) and an increase in Departments' notional annual mid-point salary (NAMS) ceiling for the additional in-house staff needed.

15. As regards paragraph 14(a) above, the expenditure of $60,648,000 is for the acquisition of hardware and software. The expenditure breakdown of the hardware and software, together with a brief description of their functions in serving the EMAN system, is at Enclosure 4.

16. As regards paragraph 14(b) above, the expenditure of $30,253,000 is for the acquisition of contract services for system analysis, design, development, integration and implementation. The expenditure breakdown is at Enclosure 5.

17. As regards paragraph 14(c) above, the expenditure of $588,000 is for the site preparation work such as the installation of conduits and power sockets, and cabling work at the offices of C&ED, C&SD and Trade D.

18. As regards paragraph 14(d) above, the expenditure of $1,981,000 is for facility management, including the acquisition of management and operation service and accommodation cost, during system development and the testing stages before production. Computer facilities of previous EDI projects are accommodated at ITSD's Central Computer Centre which provides facility management services including computer operation, network management and help desk services to systems of various departments. There is however no more space at ITSD's Central Computer Centre now to accommodate the EMAN system. New premises as well as a new team of operation staff are therefore required. In line with the Government's policy on outsourcing, we propose that the facility management of EMAN, including accommodation for the computer facilities, be totally outsourced and provided by an external service provider. Hence the inclusion of this expenditure item. We estimate that the expenditure is comparable to the costs required by ITSD if it is to take up the task.

19. As regards paragraph 14(e) above, the expenditure of $5,713,000 is for the acquisition of telecommunications service for establishing the wide area network. The essential elements of this network will consist of, on the part of the Government, 16 locations in the user departments of C&ED, C&SD and Trade D and one location in Tradelink. Due to the large volume of manifest and other data involved, the network will require a high bandwidth.

20. As regards paragraph 14(f) above, the expenditure of $185,000 is for the provision of training to Government staff on using, operating and supporting EMAN applications.

21. As regards paragraph 14(g) above, the expenditure of $1,612,000 is for the acquisition of start-up consumables such as printer toners, printing papers, backup tapes and stationery for project.

22. As regards paragraph 14(h) above, the expenditure of $9,090,000 represents a 10% contingency in respect of the items of paragraph 14(a) and 14(b).

23. As regards paragraph 14(i) above, the cost of $5,404,000 represents C&ED staff cost for supporting system development and implementation including system design, system testing, end-user training, preparation of operation manual and procedures, joint testing with Tradelink and pre-production set-up of C&ED functions. This comprises 4.95 man-months of an Assistant Superintendent (AS), 16.5 man-months of a Senior Inspector (SI), 16.5 man-months of an Inspector, 16.5 man-months of a Senior Trade Controls Officer (STCO), 16.5 man-months of a Senior Customs Officer (SCO) and 16.5 man-months of a Customs Officer. In terms of additional posts required in 1999-2000, it involves the creation of one SI, one Inspector, one STCO, one SCO and one Customs Officer posts at an additional NAMS value of $2,027,460.

24. As regards paragraph 14(j) above, the cost of $5,476,000 represents C&SD staff cost for supporting system development and implementation including system design, system testing, end-user training, preparation of operation manual and procedures, joint testing with Tradelink and pre-production set-up of C&SD functions. This comprises 16.5 man-months of a Statistician (Stat), 33 man-months of a Senior Statistical Officer (SSO), 32.5 man-months of a Statistical Officer I (SO I) and eight man-months of a Clerical Officer (CO). In terms of additional posts required in 1999-2000, it involves the creation of one Stat, two SSO and one SO I posts in C&SD at an additional NAMS value of $2,064,000. In 2000-01, an additional NAMS value of $1,064,400 for the creation of two additional SO I and one additional CO posts is also required.

25. As regards paragraph 14(k) above, the cost of $1,503,000 represents Trade D staff cost for supporting system development and implementation including system design, system testing, end-user training, preparation of operation manual and procedures, joint testing with Tradelink and pre-production set-up of Trade D functions. This comprises 16.5 man-months of an Assistant Trade Officer I (ATO I) and 16.5 man-months of a CO. In terms of additional posts required in 1999-2000, it involves the creation of one ATO I, and one CO posts in Trade D at an additional NAMS value of $800,700.

26. As regards paragraph 14(l) above, the cost of $3,529,000 represents ITSD staff costs for the preparation of tender specification, tender selection, tender negotiation, contract management and administration, and provision of information technology advice to the Government departments and the contractors in relation to the project. This comprises 15 man-months of a Senior Systems Manager (SSM) and 15 man-months of a Systems Manager (SM). We have included sufficient provision in ITSD's 1999-2000 Estimates for this purpose.

Recurrent Expenditure

27. Based on the feasibility study results, we estimate the annual recurrent expenditure and costs as follows -

Recurrent expenditure
(a)Hardware and software maintenance 9,049 11,088
(b)Facility management 10,407 13,146
(c)Communication service 3,694 4,666
(d)Consumables 158 200

_______ _______
Sub-total 23,308 29,100

_______ _______
Staff costs
(e)C&ED 811 1,024
(f)C&SD 1,846 2,332
(g)Trade D 506 639
(h)ITSD 241 341

_______ _______
Sub-total 3,404 4,336

_______ _______
Total 26,712 33,436

_______ _______

28. As regards paragraph 27(a) above, the expenditure of $11,088,000 is for the maintenance of computer hardware, system and application software.

29. As regards paragraph 27(b) above, the expenditure of $13,146,000 is for on-going facility management as described in paragraph 18 above. This includes system management, monitoring, control and 24-hour operation, rental for two data centres (one for primary use with a floor area of 45 square metres and the other for disaster recovery with a floor area of 35 square metres) and the consumables used therein and provision of call centre service.

30. As regards paragraph 27(c) above, the expenditure of $4,666,000 is for the rental cost of communication lines.

31. As regards paragraph 27(d) above, the expenditure of $200,000 is for the provision of consumable items, such as printer toners and papers, tapes for backup purposes and write-once optical disks for secondary storage.

32. As regards paragraph 27(e) above, $1,024,000 represents C&ED staff cost for on-going system maintenance, day-to-day system operations, liaison with users and cargo industry, study and research on system enhancements and end-user training. It comprises one Inspector and one Customs Officer posts.

33. As regards paragraph 27(f) above, $2,332,000 is to meet C&SD staff cost of one Stat, one SSO and one SO I posts. These officers will be responsible for central administrative work, on-going maintenance, and system enhancement of EMAN.

34. As regards paragraph 27(g) above, $639,000 is to meet Trade D staff cost of one ATO I post for the administration of the daily operation and maintenance of the system.

35. As regards paragraph 27(h) above, $341,000 represents 2.4 man-months of an SSM post of ITSD staff costs for contract administration. This is to be absorbed by ITSD.

36. Subject to Members' approval of this item, we will include the provision for the purpose of paragraphs 27(a) to (g) in future Estimates.

Implementation Plan

37. Subject to Members' approval, the implementation plan will be as follows -

ActivityExpected completion date
(a)Tendering for implementation of EMAN February 2000
(b)Development and implementation of EMAN June 2001
(c)System roll-out milestones
    (i) Pilot run with selected carriers of all modes
June 2001
    (ii)Stage 1 - all carriers of rail mode
September 2001
    (iii)Stage 2 - all carriers of air mode
October 2001
    (iv)Stage 3 - all carriers of ocean and river modes (Full implementation)
December 2001


38. We have consulted the industry including carriers, freight forwarders, industry associations, and terminal operators. They are supportive of the EMAN proposal.


Trade and Industry Bureau
June 1999

Enclosure 1 to FCR(1999-2000)35

Proposed Electronic Data Interchange System for Manifest (EMAN)

Under the Import and Export Ordinance, information on all cargo imported or exported in every vessel, aircraft or vehicle should be recorded in a manifest. At present, a carrier has to separately submit to C&ED, C&SD and Trade D one paper copy of the manifest. The sets of manifest received from ocean and river, air and rail carriers for 1998-99 totalled about 1 751 000. Thus the total number of paper copies handled is thrice that number, i.e. 5 253 000.

2. Under the proposed EMAN system, a network infrastructure will be set up to facilitate the electronic submission of manifests from air, rail, ocean and river carriers. Only one electronic submission has to be made by the carriers. The system will interface with the existing RTEL and TDEC systems. It will also be linked with a few Government departments and non-government bodies, as follows.

  1. Government departments -

    1. C&ED, C&SD and Trade D : to enable them to access the centralized manifest database for manifest processing (cross-checking against dutiable commodities permits; compiling trade statistics, verifying compliance with legislative controls etc.);

    2. Marine Department : to access sea and river transportation schedules.

  2. Tradelink : to route the EDI messages through the necessary electronic gateway provider.

  3. Airport Authority (AA) and Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC) : to download air and rail transportation schedules.

3. The major functions provided by the EMAN system will include -

  • Delivering/receiving EDI manifest messages to/from cargo carriers through Tradelink.

  • Performing EDI message translation and validation.

  • Enabling multiable-access of manifest data through application servers by the three user departments.

  • Delivering, when necessary, query messages on the received manifest messages to concerned parties.

  • Matching the manifest received against the transportation schedules collected from AA, KCRC and Marine Department to ensure that all manifests have been submitted and generating reminders on outstanding manifests to carriers.

Specific Functions Provided by EMAN System to Individual Departments


4. The EMAN system will enable C&ED to access and print manifest information as required. Through an automated checking facility, the system will be capable of identifying suspected consignments or targets for enforcement actions. C&ED may send messages to cargo carriers, forwarders, terminal operators and godown operators relating to directives for detention, examination and release of cargo.


5. The EMAN system will enable C&SD to validate the completeness of manifest consignment information prior to acceptance and to follow up on the rejected cases with the relevant parties. It will enable the generation of interface files for TDEC matching and compilation of trade statistics. The EMAN system will enhance the accuracy and efficiency of TDEC matching and help improve the quality of trade statistics in terms of precision and timeliness.

Trade D

6. The EMAN system will enable Trade D to exercise more effective licensing control on imported and exported articles through cross-matching the information in the manifest with other available information, e.g. information in RTEL system. It will validate the consigned commodity items against pre-defined rules of prohibited articles to indicate if any licence or notification is required. It will facilitate follow-up action on licence requirements. The system will enhance Trade D's capability in strengthening its licensing control operations.

Enclosure 2 to FCR(1999-2000)35

I. Notional Savings

(i) Improvement in Efficiency

Description Saving in man-year Annual staff cost (HK$) Annual saving (HK$)

Highlight high risk ports; underline consignees; assign consignment number; indicate "T/S" against transhipment cargo; check and jot down importer's classification and unique identifier on manifests

    Customs Officer (CO)
0.66 300,924.00 198,609.84
Searching, borrowing and retrieving manifests (travelling time included)

    Trade Controls Officer (TCO)
1.21 599,616.00 725,535.36
    Assistant Trade Controls Officer (ATCO)
0.21 323,148.00 67,861.08
Despatch detention notice and release voucher

    Customs Officer (CO)
2.00 300,924.00 601,848.00
Sub-total (CO) 2.66
Sub-total (TCO) 1.21
Sub-total (ATCO) 0.21
C&ED : Sub-total


Input air house manifest particulars; sort manifests before mark-off; sort manifests before checking, separate air manifests into direct or consolidated consignments and match house manifests

    Assistant Clerical Officer (ACO)
20.80 323,760.00 6,734,208.00
    Clerical Assistant (CA)
10.50 216,348.00 2,271,654.00
Sub-total (ACO) 20.80
Sub-total (CA) 10.50
C&SD : Sub-total

Trade D

Receive, check and sort manifests received from carriers; input vessel / flight / train schedule into a personal computer; mark off manifests received and prepare manifest checking input form

    Clerical Assistant (CA)
4.31 216,348.00 932,459.88
Sort and file away checked manifests

    Assistant Clerical Officer (ACO)
0.48 323,760.00 155,404.80
    Clerical Assistant (CA)
0.20 216,348.00 43,269.60
Maintain register of query letters and compile statistics on issuance of query letters

    Assistant Clerical Officer (ACO)
0.15 323,760.00 48,564.00
Issue and follow-up query letters

    Assistant Clerical Officer (ACO)
0.60 323,760.00 194,256.00
Sub-total (ACO) 1.23
Sub-total (CA) 4.51
Trade D : Sub-total

Total Efficiency Improvement


Description Annual saving
    Efficiency Improvement
    Less Realisable Savings (Manpower)
Sub-total 992,006.28
    Efficiency Improvement
    Less Realisable Savings (Manpower)
Sub-total 367,182.00
Trade D
    Efficiency Improvement
    Less Realisable Savings (Manpower)
Sub-total 508,562.28
Total Notional Savings (improvement in efficiency) 1,867,750.56

(ii) Savings in accommodation resulting from deletion of posts

Description Number of post Area saved(m2) Annual accommodation cost per m2
Accommodation saving

    Customs Officer (CO)
2 4.00 3,758.40 15,033.60
Sub-total 2


    Assistant Clerical Officer (ACO)
20 88.00 6,026.40 530,323.20
    Clerical Assistant (CA)
10 41.00 6,026.40 247,082.40
Sub-total 30 129.00
Trade D

    Clerical Assistant (CA)
4 16.40 4,838.40 79,349.76
Sub-total 4

Total Savings 36


(iii) Savings in accommodation for storage space of paper manifests

Description Area saved(m2) Annual accommodationcost
per m2
Accommodation saving

    Cargo Research Division at Kwai Chung
138.40 3,758.40 520,162.56
    Kowloon Railway Unit
47.50 3,164.40 150,309.00
    Trade Controls Branch at Sheung Wan
25.00 5,540.40 138,510.00
Sub-total 210.90

    Trade Statistics Processing Section
95.50 6,026.40 575,521.20
    Tuen Mun Records Centre
138.00 2,138.40 295,099.20
Sub-total 233.50
Trade D

    Manifest Checking Unit
73.30 4,838.40 354,654.72
    Tuen Mun Records Centre
330.00 2,138.40 705,672.00
Sub-total 403.30
Total Savings 847.70

Note: The above notional savings in efficiency improvement are fragmented savings scattered in different offices. Therefore, they cannot be realised.

II. Realisable Savings

Description Number of post Annual staff cost
Annual saving
Resulting from Post Deletion


    Customs Officer (CO)
2 300,924.00 601,848.00
Sub-total 2

    Assistant Clerical Officer (ACO)
20 323,760.00 6,475,200.00
    Clerical Assistant (CA)
10 216,348.00 2,163,480.00
Sub-total 30
Trade D

    Clerical Assistant (CA)
4 216,348.00 865,392.00
Sub-total 4
Total Realisable Savings
(Post Deletion)
Cost Avoidance of Maintenance

Total Realisable Savings


Savings : Summary

Description Annual Savings
Realisable Savings 10,142,232
Notional Savings
Improvement in efficiency 1,867,751
Savings in accommodation cost
    - resulting from deletion of posts
    - storage space for paper manifest
Sub-total of Notional Savings 5,479,469
Total Savings 15,621,701

Enclosure 3 to FCR(1999-2000)35

Cost-Benefit Analysis of
the proposed Electronic Data Interchange System
for Cargo Manifest
(at 1999-2000 price level)

- expenditure 0 93,067 17,003 - - - -
- staff cost 2,894 10,490 2,528 - - - -
Sub-total 2,894 103,557 19,531 - - - -
- expenditure 0 0 23,308 29,100 29,100 29,100 29,100
- staff cost 0 0 3,404 4,336 4,336 4,336 4,336
Sub-total 0 0 26,712 33,436 33,436 33,436 33,436
Total costs 2,894 103,557 46,243 33,436 33,436 33,436 33,436
- realisable saving 0 0 2,958 10,142 10,142 10,142 10,142
- notional saving 0 0 1,598 5,479 5,479 5,479 5,479
Total benefits 0 0 4,556 15,621 15,621 15,621 15,621
Net benefits (2,894) (103,557) (41,687) (17,815) (17,815) (17,815) (17,815)
Cumulative benefits (2,894) (106,451) (148,138) (165,953) (183,768) (201,583) (219,398)

Enclosure 4 to FCR(1999-2000)35

Cost Breakdown of Hardware and Software

Hardware and software item Cost
Database servers
(3 servers)
27,635 Database servers act as central repository of manifest data for subsequent processing performed by the three user departments.
EDI communication gateways
(2 servers)
9,535 EDI communication gateways perform EDI message translation, validate the manifest messages and forward the valid messages for database storage.
Application servers
(4 servers)
4,705 The application servers serve as middleman of an intranet-based system for implementing workflow-oriented processing of manifest functions for the three user departments.
Workstations and printers
(124 PC client workstations and 76 printers)
3,366 The workstations and printers are provided to users as client equipment for their interactive processing and manipulation of manifest functions.
Communication and network equipment 3,828 Communication and network equipment plays a significant role in linking up all the above mentioned computer components for communication. It also protects the network and system from being intruded by implementing security measure through the installation of firewall equipment.
System software 11,579 It consists of operating system software, database software, EDI gateway software, EMAN application software, Chinese support software, PC software, etc., which supplement the hardware components to ensure the proper functioning of the whole system.

Enclosure 5 to FCR(1999-2000)35

Cost Breakdown of Contract Services

EMAN Application 29,321 Contract service is needed for implementing the core functions of EMAN to facilitate the EDI submission of manifests and subsequent manifest processing.
Interface Systems 932 Contract service is needed to develop various interface systems of the other government departments and external organizations with a view to collecting essential information for manifest processing.

(1) These trade-related documents include -

    (a) Restrained Textiles Export Licences;
    (b) Other quota-related transactions;
    (c) Import and Export Declarations;
    (d) Certificates of Origin and related documents;
    (e) Cargo Manifest; and
    (f) Dutiable Commodities Permits.

(2) Given the modus operandi of road transport, the feasibility study confirmed that the submission of cargo manifests electronically would not be feasible at this stage.

(3) These include, for example, HK Liner Shipping Association, Hapag-Llyod, Maersk (HK) Ltd., American President Lines Ltd., P&O Containers Ltd., Modern Terminal Ltd., COSCO-HIT Terminal (HK) Ltd., Sealand Orient Terminals Ltd. and Asia Terminals Ltd.